Assessing with Storytelling: Oral Story Test

Picture notes are a personalized way to help students stay in the TL while retelling a story.

This is my favorite assessment of the quarter. Students pick any story from the quarter that we have read and they retell it to me as if I have never heard it before. Each story is about the same level of difficulty, so I don’t mind letting them pick one from the beginning of the quarter. The last story we co-create might even be easier for them since it’s fresher in their mind (In the past I have also just assigned the last story we co-created. It really doesn’t matter).

After students have completed the test, I ask questions about them that are related to the story they chose. For example, let’s say that in the story a character goes to a café and drinks a coffee (mmm, coffee). I may ask a student something like, “Do you drink coffee?”, “Do you prefer coffee or tea?”, or “What do you drink when you are thirsty?”. This provides a way to assess their conversational ability during a spontaneous interaction.

In a way, I suppose that I do prepare these questions. I make sure to include specific vocabulary and phrases in the written version of the stories, and this lends itself to asking certain questions. But I don’t write out a list of questions ahead of time, and instead take them from the text itself. 

(Note: I will do a separate post about how I introduce and structure stories throughout the quarter after I finish this current Assessing with Storytelling series.)


I allow students to use picture notes on this assessment with as many hand-drawn pictures as they like — one picture for each word or even each syllable if they want. The only caveat to these notes is that there can be no words on the paper or they can’t use it. In this way, students can focus on how to express themselves instead of being pressured into remembering every detail of the story.

The picture notes are not required, but maybe the should be. Students who take the time to draw out the story tend to perform way better than those who just try to memorize or remember everything without notes. If they draw enough pictures they always remember how to say something, even if it’s not perfectly accurate.

I use this assessment as my final exam, which is usually a 2-hour block for me. When I’m done with the block of tests I’m mentally exhausted from listening to all these students, but I’m done grading. I’d argue that this is the mark of a great assessment.

In Groups or Individually?

I keep going back and forth on this one. Some quarters I have had students go individually. This provides the best feedback for students, but takes way longer and gives me the impression that I may be intimidating some students (I’ve had some students cry one-on-one due to the test anxiety—Granted, they also could have cried in a group).

Other quarters I’ve put students in groups of two and had them each tell half the story. This way they have to listen to each other and pick up where the other left off. If you let them pick the story

I pick the groups, and they don’t know which half of the story they’re going to retell. That way they have to prepare the whole thing. Really the whole thing is to get them to do a deep dive on a story and get more comprehensible input. My son does this naturally by picking the same story to read over and over, but adults need a little prodding to do this behavior. This is the perfect way to get them to reread a story from class.

Note: If you want then to tell the story in groups and let students pick which story they want to retell, you need to know ahead of time which students studied which story. That way students who studied Story A can go with other students who also studied Story A. 

In Front of the Class or in Private?

I let the small groups go privately at an assigned time. The rest of the students wait out in the hall/lobby until they are called into the classroom. The idea behind this assessment is to see what students can produce, and talking in front of the class on a test doesn’t do anything but raise the affective filter. The test itself is enough anxiety, even though I aim for it to be as low-key as possible.

How I Grade the Oral Story Test

Just like the Final Writing Project, I have a rubric for grading this assessment. It helps me to be more objective, and it lets me finish grading as soon as they’re done taking the test.

Note: While students are talking, I scribble notes on a blank piece of paper so I can remember what students said on the test. This practice has come in handy on more than one occasion when a student has come seen me for additional feedback or the time I forgot to circle the scores on my rubric. Let’s just say I’m glad I wrote down what they said.

Communication and Flow

10 203040
Student could not communicate in Spanish. Student could not respond freely to instructor’s questions using emerging output in Spanish.
Use of English.
Student demonstrated limited communication in Spanish. Student responded to some of the instructor’s questions freely using emerging  output in Spanish that approached the expected level.Student demonstrated level-appropriate communication of a message (i.e. the events of a story) in Spanish. Student responded to most questions using level-appropriate emerging output in Spanish.Student demonstrated above-average Successful communication of a specific message in Spanish. Student responded fluently to all the instructor’s questions using above-average emerging output in Spanish.

Like it’s written counterpart, communication is the most important factor that I look for when grading this assessment. I want to hear students being able to communicate the events of a story using only their emerging output in L2.

Grammar and Vocabulary

Student did not demonstrate understanding of relevant vocabulary. Student did not demonstrate natural or accurate production of grammatical forms, especially those covered in class.Student demonstrated some understanding of relevant vocabulary. Student demonstrated accurate production of  relevant grammatical forms below the expected level.Student demonstrated level-appropriate understanding of relevant vocabulary. Student demonstrated accurate production of vocabulary and grammatical forms, especially those covered in class.Student demonstrated above-average understanding of relevant vocabulary. Student demonstrated above-average production of  grammatical forms, especially those covered in class.

This is another one of the few times in my course that I evaluate grammar in context. Students have been afforded the opportunity to select and study the story and bring in picture notes. I’m looking for their grammar and vocabulary to be accurate.

Despite the generous design of this assessment, it’s still incredibly difficult for students to remember everything.  It is easy, however, to identify the forms and vocabulary students have acquired successfully.

Natural Progression of Fluency

Student demonstrated a lack confidence while speaking and interacting, which was highlighted by frequent and long hesitations in Spanish (e.g. long pauses. Many “ums,” “uhs,” and/or other English filler words).Student demonstrated a lack confidence while speaking and interacting, which was highlighted by some hesitation in Spanish (e.g. some long pauses. Many “ums,” “uhs,” and/or other English filler words).Student demonstrated adequate confidence while speaking and interacting, which was highlighted by  a lack of hesitation in Spanish (e.g. few pauses and very infrequent use of “ums,” “uhs,” and/or other English filler words).Student demonstrated a high degree of confidence while speaking and interacting in Spanish, which was highlighted by few (if any) pauses. Use of Spanish filler words such as  “bueno” “pues”, “este”, etc.

Last summer I attended a second TPRS© workshop, this one in Seattle. The presenter was Mike Coxon, and he defined fluency as students demonstrating “confidence, accuracy, and a lack of hesitation”. I like this definition of fluency. As a long-term goal, we want students to speak confidently and accurately, not with a bunch of errors in their speech. we also wan them to speak without hesitation. We don’t want them to think about the language; we want them to think in the language.

I’m sure this isn’t the perfect rubric, but I also believe it gives me a fairly accurate picture of my students’ ability to speak the language.

I look forward to this assessment every quarter. It’s the easiest thing in the world to grade, and it lets me see how far they have come during the short time we spent together.

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